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Nicole Fox

Associate Professor of Criminal Justice, California State University, Sacramento
Chapter Member: Sacramento SSN
Areas of Expertise:

About Nicole

Fox's research focuses on mass atrocity, gender and memorialization. Overarching themes in Fox's writing include how communities rebuild in the aftermath of violence and how memories of the past shape present day responses to violence, social policy and identity. Fox serves as a research scholar for University of New Hampshire's Prevention Innovation Research Center and is working on a new project on people who rescued others during episodes of genocide.


In the News

Interviewed in "After Genocide: Memory and Reconciliation in Rwanda," New Books in Genocide Studies, 2021.
Interviewed in "The Weaponization of Sexual Violence," Beyond Fear: The Sex Crimes Podcast, July 15, 2020.
Opinion: "Memorializing COVID-19," Nicole Fox, Mobilizing Ideas, May 1, 2020.


"Following Heavenly Orders: Heroic Deviance and the Denial of Responsibility in Narratives of Rescue" (with Hollie Nyseth Brehm and Jamie D. Wise). Deviant Behavior (2021).

Focuses Hutu who did not participate in the genocidal violence in 1994 Rwanda and instead risked their lives to rescue Tutsi. Draws from 45 in-depth interviews, we examine how these deviant heroes invoke religion to narrate their actions. Finds that interviewees often neutralize their acts of rescue by attributing responsibility to God. 

"The Impact of Religious Beliefs, Practices, and Social Networks on Rwandan Rescue Efforts During Genocide" (with Hollie Nyseth Brehm and John Gasana Gasasira). Genocide Studies and Prevention 15, no. 1 (2021).

Demonstrates that religion is tied to rescue efforts in at least three ways: 1) through the creation of cognitive safety nets that enabled high-risk actions; 2) through religious practices that isolated individuals from the social networks of those committing the violence; and 3) through religious social networks where individuals encountered opportunities and accessed resources to rescue.

" After Genocide Memory and Reconciliation in Rwanda" (Wisconsin Press, 2021).

Investigates the ways memorials can shape the experiences of survivors decades after mass violence has ended. Examines how memorializations can both heal and hurt, especially when they fail to represent all genders, ethnicities, and classes of those afflicted. Reveals after drawing on extensive experiences with Rwandans their relationships to these spaces and uncovers those voices silenced by the dominant narrative—arguing that the erasure of such stories is an act of violence itself.

"Contesting Commemorative Landscapes: Confederate Monuments and Trajectories of Change" (with Christina Simko and David Cunningham). Oxford Academic 69, no. 3 (2020): 591-611.

Develops a framework for differentiating distinct “modes of recontextualization” rooted in the relocation and/or modification of commemorative objects.